Write a paper (2,000-2,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment.
Communicable Disease Selection
Choose one communicable disease from the options below.
- Hepatitis B
Epidemiology Paper Requirements
Address the following:
- Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.
- Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.
- Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?
- Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.
- Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.
- Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.
A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references is required.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Communicable diseases are regarded as illnesses that are caused by bacteria or viruses that are spread from one person to another through direct contact with bodily fluids, contaminated surfaces, insect bites, blood products, insect bites, as well as through the air. According to Flannery et al., (2017), most common forms of the spread of these viruses and bacteria include food, fecal-oral, insect bites, sexual intercourse, droplets, contact with contaminated fomites, and skin contact. One of the most common communicable diseases is influenza. On this understanding, this paper seeks to explore this disease in terms of its description, social determinants of health, the epidemiological triangle, role of community health nurses, and global implication. This paper also examines one national agency or organization that can help in addressing the communicable disease.
Description of Influenza
Influenza is a common viral infection that attacks the respiratory system including the lungs, nose, and throat. Most medical practitioners indicate that influenza is primarily spread by droplets that are created when people with the condition sneeze, talk, or cough. As such, when these droplets land in the noses or mouths of nearby people, they become highly vulnerable to the condition. Although not common, touching surfaces or objects with the flu virus and then touching mouth, eyes, or nose may spread the virus. People with influenza are likely to be contagious even before noticeable symptoms. Although most people are usually at risks of developing influenza and its complications, Cope, Ross, Chilver, Stocks, and Mitchell (2018) indicate that children and people with weakened immunity are typically at a higher risk. Pregnant women are also likely to develop influenza especially in the second as well as third trimesters.
In regards to symptoms, at the start, influenza appears as a common cold with a runny nose, sore throat, or sneezing. However, with time, cold develops slowly accompanied by a wide range of complications. These include fever over 100.4 F, chills and sweats, aching muscles, headaches, dry and persistent cough, sore throat, nasal congestion, and fatigue and weakness (Shang, Blanton, Brammer, Olsen, & Fry, 2018). In most situations, these symptoms typically go away within one of two weeks with no long-lasting effects. However, high-risk children, as well as adults, may develop a wide range of complications including, but not limited to pneumonia, ear infections, heart problems, bronchitis, and asthma flare-ups.
Influenza is preventable through vaccination. CDC usually recommends annual vaccination of influenza for all people above the age of 6 months. When it comes to treatment, Flannery et al., (2017) have articulated that although there is no specific treatment for influenza, most medical practitioners recommend antiviral such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza). Pain relievers can also be used in the alleviating some of the symptoms such as body pains and headache. However, it is worth noting that some painkillers such as aspirin are usually not suitable for children who are below the age of 12 years.
The morbidity and mortality of influenza can help in describing its severity. In terms of morbidity, between 5 to 20 percent of the entire population of the United States get influenza each year. Additionally, approximately 200,000 people in American are hospitalized each year due to problems associated with influenza. In terms of mortality, about 3,000 to 49,000 people in the US die from influenza-related conditions……Please click the icon below to purchase full answer at only $15