(Solution) NRS 428 week 2 Assignment Epidemiology Paper

Write a paper (2,000-2,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment.

Communicable Disease Selection

  1. Chickenpox
  2. Tuberculosis
  3. Influenza
  4. Mononucleosis
  5. Hepatitis B
  6. HIV
  7. Ebola
  8. Measles
  9. Polio
  10. Influenza

Epidemiology Paper Requirements

  1. Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc.
  2. Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.
  3. Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?
  4. Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.
  5. Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.
  6. Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.

A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references is required.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.


Epidemiology Paper

Nurses must be knowledgeable about communicable diseases affecting their community and population groups. As described by Nathavitharana et al. (2017), communicable diseases are caused by infectious agents from one person to another, directly or indirectly. Nurses have a central role in health promotion and prevention of communicable diseases. They assist their patients, communities, and the public at large to remain healthy and protected from communicable diseases through the development and implementation of health promotion and disease prevention programs. To better assist in managing communicable diseases, nurses need to understand these diseases, including their clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, prevalence, social determinants, roles of community health nurses (CHNs), national organizations addressing the disease, and global implications of the disease. This paper discusses tuberculosis (TB). The sections included are disease description, social determinants of health and their impacts, epidemiological triad, related national organization/agency, and global implication of the disease.

Description of TB

TB, as described by Mayo Clinic (2019), is a fatal disease that affects the lungs. It is caused by a bacterium namely; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which spreads from person to persona via tiny droplets from, sneezes, spits, and coughs, released into the air. Many TB strain is drug-resistant and thus active TB patients must use multiple drug types for months to clean the infection and also prevent antibiotic resistance. All humans can harbor TB bacteria by getting sick depends on one’s immunity, and thus the difference between latent/inactive and active TB. Persons with latent TB have the harbor the bacteria in an inactive state without any clinical manifestations. Even though latent TB is non-contagious, it can develop to active TB and thus, requires timely treatment. Persons with active TB have signs and symptoms and can easily spread it (Mayo Clinic, 2019). It develops a few weeks or even years of post-bacterial infections. Active TB brings various signs and symptoms include a cough lasting 3 or more weeks, cough with blood, unintentional weight loss, chest pain (maybe when coughing or breathing), fatigue, night sweats, fever, appetite loss, and chills. Besides the lungs, TB may also affect other body parts including the kidneys, spine, and brain. Spinal TB can cause back pain while kidney TB presents bloody urine. As recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) persons at high risk for TB infection should be screened for inactive TB. These include those with HIV/AIDS, using IV drugs, were in contact with TB infected persons, and traveling from areas with high TB prevalence e.g. Asia, live/ work in TB infested areas e.g. nursing homes and prisons, work with TB patients or those at high risk, and children exposed to adults susceptible to TB (CDC, 2019). Immunocompromised persons, i.e. persons living with HIV/AIDS, severe kidney disease, diabetes, specific cancers, under cancer treatment, malnutrition, taking drugs to enhance transplants, and rheumatoid arthritis drugs are at high risk of developing active TB (Reid et al., 2019).

According to the CDC (2016), TB is treated with medication, with therapy duration being longer than other bacterial infections. A person with active TB must use antibiotics for 6-9 months, at the minimum, with these drugs and duration depending on one’s age, potential drug resistance, general health, and the location of the infection. The most used TB medications are Isoniazid, Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane), Ethambutol (Myambutol), and Pyrazinamide. Those…..Please click the icon below to purchase full answer at only $15